Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious disease transmitted to humans (zoonosis) caused primarily by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). This bacterium can infect many domestic and wild species, particularly cattle and deer, but also wild boars, badgers or foxes. Infection in cattle is often unapparent, with clinical symptoms only appear late in a course that is usually very long. It is in particular the indirect losses that this disease generates that have a strong economic impact on the sector (inability to sell live animals, raw milk, seeds, etc.)
Avian influenza (H5N1) is a disease caused by several types of viruses that first affects birds. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is highly contagious and affects birds and poultry, with a few cases of infection in humans. All cases of infection in humans occurred during epidemic outbreaks in poultry.